Techniques Used in Implant Osteotomy Drilling and Drill Impact

Dental issues are increasing among people, and dentists are becoming acquainted with dental implants. It provides many benefits to patients, restoring teeth, reducing cavities, permanent tooth loss solution, and preventing bone loss.

Well, conventional osteotomy is the latest implant in dentistry. It includes the use of implant osteotomy drills and saline irrigation to deliver the best results.

But, before performing any dental implant, the dentist must know the techniques to use drills. So, here we have created a guide including the procedure for osteotomy drill as well their impact on the dental implant.

Implant Osteotomy: Techniques, Speed, Force, And Impact Of Drilling  

1. What Is Implant Osteotomy & Drilling Techniques? 

Osseointegration has a high success rate of dental implants in dentistry. And the heat generated while rotary cutting is a major factor that affects osseointegration development.

a). Understand Osteotomy 

Well, the osseointegration process consists of implanting direct bone support without encapsulation. There are many factors that impact Osseointegration;

  • Chemical composition
  • Implant design  
  • Shape and material of the implant
  • Topography of implant surface
  • Its intrinsic healing potential
  • Host bone bed, stability
  • Loading conditions
  • Pharmacological agents
  • Use adjuvant treatments
  • Heat generation during osteotomy

b). The Techniques Used For Osteotomy 

For two decades, the use of endosseous implants has increased in dentistry. It provides more improvement in the material of the implant, it’s surfacing, and its form. Also, the procedure is successful in surgical techniques, postoperative dental hygiene, and supra-structure construction.

During the procedure, the surgeon will use a cutting tool to cut the bone and then move it into the correct position. Once the bone is in the correct position, it will be held in place with screws, plates, or rods.

Well, while discussing the development of osseointegration, the heat generated during the rotary cutting process affects the most. 

  • Usually, bone tissues are prone to thermal injury. On the other side, the temperature threshold is prone to tissue survival while osteotomy (is 47 °C) process. 
  • During the implantation procedure, the implant osteotomy drill should be used for 1 minute or 3 minutes only. Also, heating more than the limit may cause failure in achieving osseointegration.
  • Also, the frictional heat during surgery causes a specific degree of necrosis in undifferentiated or differentiated cells. That is why it represents a high bone integration risk.
  • The brands should mention how often an implant osteotomy drill can be used. It helps dentists to eliminate possibilities of implant loss, heat generation, and other surgical failure factors.

c). How Is Osteotomy Procedure Affected? 

Generally, osteotomy is affected by many factors like:

  • Compact bone
  • Location of Osteotomy
  • Bone sponge
  • Irrigation  types
  • Internal irrigation
  • External irrigation
  • Fatigue of drill
  • Design of drill
  • Speed of drill in Osteotomy procedure
  • Total number of blades present in a drill
  • The pressure or force applied while performing the osteotomy process. 

2. Osteotomy Drilling Speed

Many scholars and scientists hold many types of research that define the ideal implant osteotomy drill speed during the procedure. Have a look over them!

The first is by Thompson who discovered initial histologic responses, mechanical effects, and thermal changes to drilling. He found that speed should be between 125 rpm to 2,000 rpm. Also, the coolant shouldn’t be used at the temperature range of 38.3 °C to 65.5 °C while improving the speed of drilling.

Pallan has verified Thompson’s research. He has supported this by stating the same drilling speed and temperature during the implant osteotomy process.

Moving forward, the well-known researcher Matthews and Hirsch stated a directly proportional relation between heat production and drilling speed. But it should be in the range of 345 rpm to 2,900 rpm of speed.

Also, Lavelle and Wedgwood said that heat production rises when the rotational speed reaches up to 350 rpm.

Eriksson et al. recommend that drill speeds should be in between the range of 1,000 rpm to 2,000 rpm. Well, Eriksson hasn’t performed any experiment for investigating the water-cooled speed of drilling.

The study by Iyer et al. represented an inverse relation between heat production and drill speed while coolant was used in implant osteotomy procedures.

3. Force Applied During Osteotomy

The drill speed is not a determinant of the production of heat. It changes the drilling force, which is connected with both the temperature elevation period and the maximum temperature elevation.  

  • If you increase the drilling rate of advancement through a rise in the drilling force, it doesn’t increase heat production.
  • However, the rise in both the load and the speed allows the drill to cut faster and more effectively than at slower speeds. That is why it generates frictional heat in a lesser amount.
  • Brisman stated a similar pattern when they compared drilling at 1,200 rpm and 2,400 rpm with a load between 1.2 KG and 2.4 KG. The result was lower heat generated with a force of 2.4 KG and a speed of 2,400 rpm.
  • Rusiniak and Hobkirk argued that 1.2 KG is an average force that should be put over the handpiece in preparation for osseous. But, they haven’t investigated the effect of force on heat generation.
  • In research, Majzouba and Cordioli found that a 2 KG drilling force comes under the range of values.

4. Impact Of Osteotomy Drills On Dental Implant   

Well, implant osteotomy drills are very useful for dentists. It helps in completing the procedure successfully and much more. Below we have listed its impacts on dental implants:  

  • First and foremost, it reduces the risk of implant failure (if the drilling procedure is followed correctly).
  • It fixes the abutments or other tools too.  
  • Help dentists in setting an implant appropriately in a patient’s jaw.  
  • Provides an artificial yet natural-looking tooth after restoration. 
  • It makes the chewing process flexible and comfortable for patients. 

But if you don’t follow the necessary guidelines for implant osteotomy drilling, then it may cause severe impact. This can damage the nearby tooth; some patients experience swelling and headache and do not give the right shape to the mouth.

Concluding Remarks 

This article helps dentists to perform their best dental implants for patients. We have covered implant osteotomy drilling, the required drilling speed, appropriate force, and impact.

Hopefully, you have got enough knowledge to perform the right dental implant. Now, you can make the best-informed decision.

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